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It has been said that "Knowledge is Power".  At Cycling Fusion we believe that an educated athlete is a better athlete.  The power of knowledge can literally translate to the language of power as in more watts on the bike when applied correctly.  


To that end, we hope that the resources offered here will provide that kind of knowledge with those types of benefits to all who avail themselves.  

White Papers

Sally Edwards, MA, MBA, Author, Exercise Scientist, CEO Heart Zones, Inc.©

The 220-minus-age equation regularly used to estimate an individual’s maximum heart rate (MHR) is invalid for this purpose. The equation, first published in 1970 from data with large variance, disregards the range of individual differences. MHR in healthy adult individuals can be as low as 150 beats-per-minute (BPM) and as high as 230 BPM. Because of this large variance, group data averaged to a mean cannot be used to predict the MHR of individuals with reasonable accuracy. Such use is inappropriate, inaccurate and can be dangerous if used to derive exercise prescriptions. There is no equation that accurately estimates an individual’s MHR or any other human biomarker, including blood pressure or cholesterol levels. Rather, exercise experts that I work with recommend individual assessments using a sub-max field test to estimate individual MHRs. We further argue that models based on population averages usually lead to inaccurate estimates and therefore the MHR

equals 220-minus-age equation should not be used.

Gene (Coach Gino) Nacey, MPH, Founder and CCO of Cycling Fusion

The power and importance of building a good base at the start of any training plan can not be over-stated.  None of the training that happens after base building will be as effective if the base is not secure, like the very foundation of a building.  Weak or shallow foundation, and the entire structure is suspect.

This is why the winter makes the best time to do this - no distractions of competition or competing interests outside (except for some ski slope time now and then), and so it is the perfect time to build that base.  The beauty of Winter Training is that no matter what sport you engage in, if it has an aerobic component, it requires base building and this is where Winter Training shines.  Winter Training will not only make you better for the Spring and Summer that follows it, but year after year you can expect to get stronger and stronger, fitter and fitter.  

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